Nanomedicine, Volume I: Basic Capabilities

© 1999 Robert A. Freitas Jr. All Rights Reserved.

Robert A. Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, Volume I: Basic Capabilities, Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, TX, 1999 Mechanical Body Noises

Many other mechanical body noises should be globally audible to properly instrumented medical nanodevices. If normal chewing motions (of hard foods) release 1-10 milliwatts in a ~100 cm3 oral volume with a ~1 sec jawstroke, power density is ~10 watts/m3 or ~10-4 atm of tooth-crunching noise. A stomach growl registering 45 dB (vs. 30 dB whisper, 60 dB normal conversation) at 2 meters has a source power of 160 milliwatts; released from a 10 cm3 gastric sphincter volume gives a ~2 x 10-6 atm acoustic wave, detectable throughout the body. Walking and running releases 20-100 joules/footfall for a 70 kg man; assuming the energy is absorbed within a ~1 cm thickness or within ~1 second by the sole of the foot, Eqn. 4.53 implies an upward-moving planar compression wave of 0.4-2.0 atm, easily detectable by acoustically instrumented nanodevices body-wide. (Shoe insoles dissipate energy and alter the shock wave pulse shape.)3493,3494 Hand-clapping generates 0.02-0.2 atm pulses, also easily detectable.

Lesser noises including ~30 millisec hiccups at (4-60)/min,2122 intestinal and ureteral peristalsis, sloshing of liquid stomach contents, heart murmurs, a tap on the shoulder by a friend, nasal sniffling and swallowing, clicks from picking or drumming fingernails, crepitations, manustuprations and ejaculations, the rustling noise of clothing against the skin, flapping eyelids, anal towelling, bruits (including murmurs and thrills) due to vascular lesions, dermal impact of water while showering, copulatory noises, urethral flow turbulence during urination, transmitted vibrations from musical instruments, creaking joints, and squeaking muscles can be detected locally if not globally. Implantation of significant interconnected in vivo diamondoid structures may produce increased sensitivity to internal noises, due to the extremely low acoustic absorption coefficient of diamond (Table 4.2).


Last updated on 17 February 2003