Nanomedicine, Volume I: Basic Capabilities
© 1999 Robert A. Freitas Jr. All Rights Reserved.
Robert A. Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, Volume I: Basic Capabilities, Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, TX, 1999
5.4.3 Bumper Mechanics
Methods of inflation and deflation of metamorphic volumes have been described in Section 5.3.3. Interbumper connection forces may be 107-109 N/m2, easily exceeding potentially disruptive forces typically encountered inside the human body. Consistent with available power resources and likely operating environments, metamorphic bumpers may be driven at frequencies of 10-1000 Hz at full-range amplitude, or faster in cases of limited-range amplitude oscillations. This response rate matches or exceeds the speeds of all important mechanical tissue movements found in the human body including respiration (0.1-1 Hz), pulse (1-2 Hz), muscle contractions during violent exercise (1-10 Hz) or tetanic contractions (15-60 Hz), and even nerve cell discharge events (5-100 Hz). The fastest known animal muscle speeds739 are found in the ~90 Hz rattle-shaker of the western diamondback rattlesnake;1245 the ~90 Hz hummingbird wingbeat; the ~200 Hz toadfish swim bladder;1245 the synchronous muscle contractions of the katydid, Neoconocephalus robustus, at 212 Hz,3161 and the cicada, Chlorocysta viridis, at 224 Hz;3162 and finally the record 1046-2200 Hz wingbeat of the tiny midge Forcipomyia.739,2033
Last updated on 18 February 2003