Nanomedicine, Volume I: Basic Capabilities

© 1999 Robert A. Freitas Jr. All Rights Reserved.

Robert A. Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, Volume I: Basic Capabilities, Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, TX, 1999 Sonication

Multiple acoustic pulses applied simultaneously to the surfaces of a crystal may elevate the interior mechanical stress above the failure strength of the material, causing it to fracture. Consider six diamond hammers of facial area L2 and failure strength ~1 x 1011 N/m2 that simultaneously impact each of the six faces of a cubic diamond target of edge L, applying a non-self-fracturing peak pressure of 0.3 x 1011 N/m2 at each face. The peak pressure rises to 1.8 x 1011 N/m2 at the center of the cube where the plane waves converge, well exceeding the strength of diamond and shattering the target cube throughout its interior. Sonic pulverization is an analogous macroscale manufacturing process.

Single-walled fullerene nanotubes are cut by water-bath ultrasonication at 55 KHz,1525 which is inferred to produce microscopic domains of high temperature1523 following the collapse of cavitation bubbles, leading to localized sonochemistry that opens a hole in the tube side. Vigorous sonication of multiwalled fullerene nanotubes produces similar damage in a CH2Cl2 bath.1590


Last updated on 21 February 2003