Nanomedicine, Volume I: Basic Capabilities

© 1999 Robert A. Freitas Jr. All Rights Reserved.

Robert A. Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, Volume I: Basic Capabilities, Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, TX, 1999


9.4.5 Cytopenetration

Upon arriving at a target tissue cell, a cellular repair nanorobot may require entry into the cytosol. The following is a necessarily brief and incomplete discussion of several techniques and issues involved in penetrating the plasma membrane, and by extension, in penetrating other intracellular membrane structures including the double-walled nuclear envelope and the multilayer outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria (Section Micron-size siliceous diatoms and "nanobacteria" with calcium shells2149,3096 and will require additional penetrative mechanisms that are not described here. This discussion also is applicable to the insertion of sensory appendages or manipulatory devices through cell or organelle lipid membranes.


Last updated on 21 February 2003