Nanomedicine, Volume IIA: Biocompatibility
© 2003 Robert A. Freitas Jr. All Rights Reserved.
Robert A. Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, Volume IIA: Biocompatibility, Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, TX, 2003
15.3.3 Biocompatibility of Nondiamondoid Carbon
Other nondiamondoid forms of carbon have been widely used as implant materials with some success, though none is expected to serve as well as diamond because their molecular surfaces are inherently more poorly defined. Prosthetic carbon materials have an extensive biocompatibility literature [904, 955] whose summation is beyond the scope of this text, aside from the brief survey presented below. The most common classes of nanomedically-relevant biomedical carbons are glassy or vitreous carbon (Section 18.104.22.168), pyrolytic or low-temperature isotropic carbon (Section 22.214.171.124), graphite (Section 126.96.36.199), and carbon fiber composites (Section 188.8.131.52). Carbon black and India ink (Section 184.108.40.206) are commonly used as inert particulate diagnostic and cell-labeling agents. These surfaces are relevant both in their own right and also as imperfect analogs of sections of diamondoid nanorobot surfaces having aperiodic structures or high rugosity, or which may have partially graphitized. Interestingly, carbon substances can accelerate galvanic corrosion (Section 220.127.116.11) much like metals.
Last updated on 30 April 2004