Nanomedicine, Volume IIA: Biocompatibility

© 2003 Robert A. Freitas Jr. All Rights Reserved.

Robert A. Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, Volume IIA: Biocompatibility, Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, TX, 2003 Particle Clearance from Nonsanguinous Spaces

This Section describes the phagocytic clearance of microparticles such as nanorobots that are injected into the tissues (Section, or are ingested (Section or inhaled (Section

Inert particles should normally be cleared from the bladder via mechanical fluid movements. Some phagocytic presence in the urine is normal [5455], but pyuria or leukocyturia (>10/mm3) is considered a pathological condition often observed in diabetic patients [5456], the elderly [5457], and other groups. Partial urinary tract blockage by nanorobots could produce some symptoms in common with oliguria [5458], prostatic obstruction, experimentally-induced chronic partial outlet obstruction [5459], or crystalluria [2145] (treatable by increasing urine flow, traditionally with diuretics [5460]).

Inert particles should also be cleared, though more slowly, from vaginal cavities via mechanical fluid movements. Lymphocytes and macrophages are present only infrequently in cervicovaginal secretions of healthy women except during menses [5461], infections [5462], or histologic chorioamnionitis [5463], though phagocytic Langerhans cells have been observed in the epithelium of the murine vagina and cervix [5464].


Last updated on 30 April 2004