Nanomedicine, Volume IIA: Biocompatibility

© 2003 Robert A. Freitas Jr. All Rights Reserved.

Robert A. Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, Volume IIA: Biocompatibility, Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, TX, 2003


15.5.1 Mechanical Interaction with Human Integument

Various potentially undesirable interactions between medical nanorobots and the human integument have been discussed elsewhere and will not be repeated in detail here. These interactions include excessive nociceptor stimulation during outmessaging (Section, excessive acoustic and optical energy densities at auditory and ocular surfaces due to communications among airborne nanorobots (Section 7.4.8); tickling sensations that might be attributable to skin-traversing nanorobots (Section 9.5.2(F)); tracheal damage from inhaled nanorobots (Section; physical damage to mucous membranes, the auditory canal, and ocular surfaces by the impact of aerial nanorobots (Section; and the possible triggering of sneezing (Section or nausea and emesis (Section by nanorobots traversing the relevant epithelia. In rare cases, excess heat generated by nanodevices located on or near the skin might induce sensations of pain, as in erythromelalgia [5447]. None of these risks appears particularly serious if proper nanomedical designs and operational protocols are observed.

Additional related concerns to be addressed in this Section include pruritus (Section; epidermalgia and allodynia (Section; epidermal pressure ulcers (Section; as well as peristaltogenesis and mucosacompatibility of medical nanorobots (Section


Last updated on 30 April 2004