Nanomedicine, Volume I: Basic Capabilities

© 1999 Robert A. Freitas Jr. All Rights Reserved.

(See note regarding left-handed DNA depicted in cover art.)

 

Preferred Literature Citation for Nanomedicine, Volume I:

Robert A. Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, Volume I: Basic Capabilities, Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, TX, 1999; http://www.nanomedicine.com/NMI.htm

 

 

Capsule Summary of Nanomedicine, Volume I:

Nanomedicine, Vol. I: Basic Capabilities (Landes Bioscience, 1999). The first volume of the Nanomedicine book series describes the set of basic capabilities of molecular machine systems that may be required by many, if not most, medical nanorobotic devices, including the physical, chemical, thermodynamic, mechanical, and biological limits of such devices. Specific topics include the abilities to recognize, sort and transport important molecules; sense the environment; alter shape or surface texture; generate onboard energy to power effective robotic functions; communicate with doctors, patients, and other nanorobots; navigate throughout the human body; manipulate microscopic objects and move about inside a human body; and timekeep, perform computations, disable living cells and viruses, and operate at various pressures and temperatures.

 

 

Purchase a Printed Copy of Nanomedicine, Volume I:

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Japanese language version of Nanomedicine, Vol. I, published in 2007 by Yakuji Nippo, Ltd:

 

 

Reviews of Nanomedicine, Volume I:

  1. "Nanomedicine, Volume I: Basic Capabilities," BetterHumans, 13 December 2002. Full Text (HTML)
  2. Lawrence Rosenberg, M.D., Ph.D., “A Review of Nanomedicine,” New Surgery, Spring 2001. Full Text (HTML) ..... Full Text (HTML) ..... Full Text (HTML)
  3. Alex M. Andrew, “Book Reviews. Nanomedicine, Volume I: Basic Capabilities,” Robotica 18(December 2000):687-688. Full Text (HTML)
  4. Gregory M. Fahy, Ph.D., “A Gift From The Future,” Life Extension Magazine, October 2000. Full Text (HTML) ..... Full Text (HTML)
  5. Tom McKendree, "More Reads on the Future," Reason Online, March 2000. Full Text (HTML)
  6. Greg Trocchia, “The MNT Bookshelf, Part 2: Nanomedicine,” Speaker's Corner/Nanotechnology, March 2000. Full Text (HTML) ..... Full Text (HTML)
  7. Richard P. Terra, “Nanomedicine: A Classic-In-The-Making. Multi-Volume Work Examines Medical Applications of MNT,” Foresight Update No. 38, 30 September 1999, pp. 1, 9, 13. Full Text (HTML)
  8. Robert J. Bradbury, CEO, Aeiveos Corp., “The `Bible' for 21st Century Bioengineering,” June 1999. Full Text (HTML)
  9. K. Eric Drexler, Ralph C. Merkle, quoted on back cover of Nanomedicine, Volume I, October 1999. Full Text (HTML)
  10. K. Eric Drexler, “Foreword,” Nanomedicine, Vol. I, 1999, pp. xviii-xix. Full Text (HTML)
  11. Ralph C. Merkle, “Afterword,” Nanomedicine, Vol. I, 1999, pp. 377-380. Full Text (HTML)

 

 

Technical Criticisms of Nanomedicine, Volume I:

 

 


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Nanomedicine, Volume I: Basic Capabilities

© 1999 Robert A. Freitas Jr. All Rights Reserved.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

Dedication ..... Local Copy (HTML)

Table of Contents ..... Local Copy (HTML)

List of Figures ..... Local Copy (HTML)

List of Tables ..... Local Copy (HTML)

Foreword by K. Eric Drexler ..... Local Copy (HTML)

Preface and Acknowledgements ..... Local Copy (HTML)

Opening Quotations ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 1.  The Prospect of Nanomedicine

1.1  A Noble Enterprise ..... Local Copy (HTML)

1.2  Current Medical Practice ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     1.2.1  The Evolution of Scientific Medicine ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          1.2.1.1  Prehistoric Medicine ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          1.2.1.2  Ancient Mesopotamian Medicine ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          1.2.1.3  Ancient Egyptian Medicine ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          1.2.1.4  Ancient Greek Medicine ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          1.2.1.5  Ancient Alexandrian Medicine ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          1.2.1.6  Ancient Roman Medicine ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          1.2.1.7  Medicine in the Middle Ages ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          1.2.1.8  Renaissance and Pre-Modern Medicine ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          1.2.1.9  Fully Invasive Surgery ..... Local Copy (HTML)

               1.2.1.9.1  Anatomy ..... Local Copy (HTML)

               1.2.1.9.2  Anesthesia ..... Local Copy (HTML)

               1.2.1.9.3  Germ Theory and Antisepsis ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          1.2.1.10  Cells and Tissues ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          1.2.1.11  Blood Transfusions ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          1.2.1.12  20th Century Medicine ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          1.2.1.13  21st Century Medicine ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     1.2.2  Volitional Normative Model of Disease ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     1.2.3  Treatment Methodology ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          1.2.3.1  Examination ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          1.2.3.2  Diagnosis ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          1.2.3.3  Prognosis and Treatment ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          1.2.3.4  Validation and Prophylaxis ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     1.2.4  Evolution of Bedside Practice ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          1.2.4.1  Specialization and Holistic Medicine ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          1.2.4.2  Customized Diagnosis and Therapeutics ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          1.2.4.3  The Physician-Patient Relationship ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     1.2.5  Changing View of the Human Body ..... Local Copy (HTML)

1.3  The Nanomedical Perspective ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     1.3.1  Nanomedicine and Molecular Nanotechnology ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     1.3.2  Nanomedicine:  History of the Idea ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          1.3.2.1  The Biological Tradition ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          1.3.2.2  The Mechanical Tradition ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          1.3.2.3  Nanomedicine in the 1990s ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     1.3.3  Biotechnology and Molecular Nanotechnology ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     1.3.4  Naturophilia ..... Local Copy (HTML)

1.4  Background and Brief Overview of This Book ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 2.  Pathways to Molecular Manufacturing

2.1  Is Molecular Manufacturing Possible? ..... Local Copy (HTML)

2.2  Top-Down Approaches to Nanotechnology ..... Local Copy (HTML)

2.3  Bottom-Up Pathways to Molecular Manufacturing ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     2.3.1  Biotechnology ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     2.3.2  Molecular and Supramolecular Chemistry ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     2.3.3  Scanning Probe Technology ..... Local Copy (HTML)

2.4  Molecular Components and Molecular Assemblers ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     2.4.1  Molecular Mechanical Components ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     2.4.2  Molecular Assemblers ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 3.  Molecular Transport and Sortation

3.1  Human Body Chemical Composition ..... Local Copy (HTML)

3.2  Diffusion Transport ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     3.2.1  Brownian Motion ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     3.2.2  Passive Diffusive Intake ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     3.2.3  Active Diffusive Intake ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          3.2.3.1  Diffusive Stirring ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          3.2.3.2  Diffusive Swimming ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     3.2.4  Diffusion Cascade Sortation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     3.2.5  Nanocentrifuge Sortation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

3.3  Membrane Filtration ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     3.3.1  Simple Nanosieving ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     3.3.2  Dynamic Pore Sizing ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     3.3.3  Gated Channels ..... Local Copy (HTML)

3.4  Receptor-Based Transport ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     3.4.1  Transporter Pumps ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     3.4.2  Sorting Rotors ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     3.4.3  Internal Transport Streams ..... Local Copy (HTML)

3.5  Molecular Receptor Engineering ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     3.5.1  Physical Forces in Molecular Recognition ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     3.5.2  Ligand-Receptor Affinity ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     3.5.3  Ligand-Receptor Specificity ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     3.5.4  Ligand-Receptor Dynamics ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     3.5.5  Diamondoid Receptor Design ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     3.5.6  Minimum Feature Size and Positioning Accuracy ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     3.5.7  Receptor Configurations ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          3.5.7.1  Imprint Model ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          3.5.7.2  Solid Mosaic Model ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          3.5.7.3  Tomographic Model ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          3.5.7.4  Pin Cushion Model ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          3.5.7.5  Construction Costs ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          3.5.7.6  Receptor Durability ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     3.5.8  Ligand-Receptor Mapping ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     3.5.9  Large Molecule Binding, Sorting, and Transport ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 4.  Nanosensors and Nanoscale Scanning

4.1  Nanosensor Technology ..... Local Copy (HTML)

4.2  Chemical and Molecular Nanosensors ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.2.1  Broadband Receptor Arrays ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.2.2  Narrowband Receptor Arrays ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.2.3  Counting Rotors ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.2.4  Chemical Assay ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.2.5  Chemical Nanosensor Theoretical Limits ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.2.6  Spatial Concentration Gradients ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.2.7  Temporal Concentration Gradients ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.2.8  Chemotactic Sensor Pads ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.2.9  Receptor Sensors ..... Local Copy (HTML)

4.3  Displacement and Motion Sensors ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.3.1  Displacement Sensors ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.3.2  Velocity and Flow Rate Sensors ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.3.3  Acceleration Sensors ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          4.3.3.1  Box-Spring Accelerometers ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          4.3.3.2  Displacement Accelerometers ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          4.3.3.3  Fluid Acceleration Sensors ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          4.3.3.4  Pivoted Gyroscopic Accelerometers ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          4.3.3.5  Accelerative Onset ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.3.4  Angular Displacement ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          4.3.4.1  Gimballed Nanogyroscopes ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          4.3.4.2  Nanopendulum Orientation Sensing ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          4.3.4.3  Nanopendulum Tachometry ..... Local Copy (HTML)

4.4  Force Nanosensors ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.4.1  Minimum Detectable Force ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.4.2  Nanogravimeters ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.4.3  Single-Proton Massometer ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.4.4  Isotope Discrimination ..... Local Copy (HTML)

4.5  Pressure Sensing ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.5.1  Minimum Detectable Pressure ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.5.2  Spatial Pressure Gradients ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.5.3  Temporal Pressure Gradients ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.5.4  Ullage Sensors ..... Local Copy (HTML)

4.6  Thermal Nanosensors ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.6.1  Minimum Detectable Temperature Change ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.6.2  Piston-Based Temperature Sensors ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.6.3  Thermal-Expansion Temperature Sensors ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.6.4  Mechanochemical Temperature Sensors ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.6.5  Spatial Thermal Gradients ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.6.6  Temporal Thermal Gradients ..... Local Copy (HTML)

4.7  Electric and Magnetic Sensing ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.7.1  Electric Fields ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.7.2  Magnetic Fields ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.7.3  Optical Sensing ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.7.4  Particulate and High-Energy Radiation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

4.8  Cellular Bioscanning ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.8.1  Cellular Topographics ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.8.2  Transcellular Acoustic Microscopy ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.8.3  Magnetic Resonance Cytotomography ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.8.4  Near-Field Optical Nanoimaging ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.8.5  Cell Volume Sensing ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.8.6  Noninvasive Neuroelectric Monitoring ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          4.8.6.1  Electric Field Neurosensing ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          4.8.6.2  Magnetic Field Neurosensing ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          4.8.6.3  Neurothermal Sensing ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          4.8.6.4  Direct Synaptic Monitoring ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          4.8.6.5  Other Neurosensing Techniques ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.8.7  Cellular RF and Microwave Oscillations ..... Local Copy (HTML)

4.9  Macrosensing ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.9.1  Acoustic Macrosensing ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          4.9.1.1  Cyto-Auscultation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          4.9.1.2  Blood Pressure and Pulse Detection ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          4.9.1.3  Respiratory Audition ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          4.9.1.4  Mechanical Body Noises ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          4.9.1.5  Vocalizations ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          4.9.1.6  Environmental Sources ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.9.2  Proprioceptive Macrosensing ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          4.9.2.1  Kinesthetic Macrosensing ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          4.9.2.2  Orientational Macrosensing ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          4.9.2.3  Body Weight Measurement ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          4.9.2.4  Gravitational Geographic Macrosensing ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.9.3  Electric/Magnetic Macrosensing ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          4.9.3.1  Vascular-Interstitial Closed Electric Circuits ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          4.9.3.2  Electric/Magnetic Geographic Macrosensing ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          4.9.3.3  Piezoelectric Stress Macrosensing ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.9.4  Optical Macrosensing ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.9.5  Neural Macrosensing ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     4.9.6  Other Macrosensing ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 5.  Shapes and Metamorphic Surfaces

5.1  Flexible Form and Function ..... Local Copy (HTML)

5.2  Optimum Nanorobot Shape ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     5.2.1  Free-Floating Solitary Nanodevices ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     5.2.2  Actively Swimming Nanodevices ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     5.2.3  Intracellular Nanodevices ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     5.2.4  Tessellating Nanodevice Aggregates:  Nanotissues ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          5.2.4.1  Tiling Nondeforming Surfaces ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          5.2.4.2  Tiling Deforming Surfaces ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     5.2.5  Space-Filling Nanodevice Aggregates:  Nano-Organs ..... Local Copy (HTML)

5.3  Metamorphic Surfaces ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     5.3.1  General Design Considerations ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          5.3.1.1  Dimple Size ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          5.3.1.2  Keyhole Passage ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          5.3.1.3  Extensibility ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          5.3.1.4  Reactivity ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     5.3.2  Metamorphic Surface Configurations ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          5.3.2.1  Accordion Model ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          5.3.2.2  Parasol Model ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          5.3.2.3  Telescoping Model ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          5.3.2.4  Flexible Fabric Model ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          5.3.2.5  Block Exchange Model ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     5.3.3  Metamorphic Power and Control ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     5.3.4  Engulf Formations ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     5.3.5  Reconfiguring Surface-Penetrating Elements ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     5.3.6  Presentation Semaphores ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     5.3.7  Chromatic Modification ..... Local Copy (HTML)

5.4  Metamorphic Bumpers ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     5.4.1  Nanojunction Mechanisms ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     5.4.2  Transbumper Communication ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     5.4.3  Bumper Mechanics ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 6.  Power

6.1  Nanodevice Energy Resources ..... Local Copy (HTML)

6.2  Energy Storage ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     6.2.1  Gravitational Energy Storage ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     6.2.2  Mechanical Energy Storage ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          6.2.2.1  Pendulums and Springs ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          6.2.2.2  Flywheels ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          6.2.2.3  Pressurized Fluids ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     6.2.3  Chemical Energy Storage ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     6.2.4  Electric and Magnetic Energy Storage ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     6.2.5  Nuclear Energy Storage ..... Local Copy (HTML)

6.3  Power Conversion ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     6.3.1  Thermal Energy Conversion Processes ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     6.3.2  Mechanical Energy Conversion Processes ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     6.3.3  Acoustic Energy Conversion Processes ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     6.3.4  Chemical Energy Conversion Processes ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          6.3.4.1  Human Chemical Energy Resources ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          6.3.4.2  Biological Chemomechanical Power Conversion ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          6.3.4.3  Artificial Chemomechanical Power Conversion ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          6.3.4.4  Glucose Engine ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          6.3.4.5  Chemoelectric Cells ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     6.3.5  Electrical Energy Conversion Processes ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     6.3.6  Photonic Energy Conversion Processes ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     6.3.7  Nuclear Energy Conversion Processes ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          6.3.7.1  Radionuclides ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          6.3.7.2  Nuclear Fusion ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          6.3.7.3  Exothermal Nuclear Catalysis ..... Local Copy (HTML)

6.4  Power Transmission ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     6.4.1  Acoustic Power Transmission ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     6.4.2  Inductive and Radiofrequency Power Transmission ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     6.4.3  Tethered Power Transmission ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          6.4.3.1  Electrical Tethers ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          6.4.3.2  Electromagnetic Tethers ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          6.4.3.3  Hydraulic and Acoustic Tethers ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          6.4.3.4  Gear Trains and Mechanical Tethers ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          6.4.3.5  Chemical Tethers ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          6.4.3.6  Power Tether Configurations in vivo ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     6.4.4  Dedicated Energy Organs ..... Local Copy (HTML)

6.5  Design Energetics Assessment ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     6.5.1  Power in Biological Cells ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     6.5.2  Thermogenic Limits in vivo ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     6.5.3  Nanorobot Power Scaling ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     6.5.4  Selection of Principal Power Source ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     6.5.5  Electrical vs. Mechanical Systems ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     6.5.6  Power Analysis in Design ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     6.5.7  Global Hypsithermal Limit ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 7.  Communication

7.1  Nanorobot Communications Requirements ..... Local Copy (HTML)

7.2  Communication Modalities ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     7.2.1  Chemical Broadcast Communication ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.2.1.1  Ideal Messenger Molecule ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.2.1.2  Diffusion-Limited Broadcast Rate ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.2.1.3  Instantaneous Stationary Source in Stationary Medium ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.2.1.4  Instantaneous Stationary Source in Flooded Tube ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.2.1.5  Continuous Stationary Source in Stationary Medium ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.2.1.6  Continuous Mobile Source in Stationary Medium ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.2.1.7  Continuous Stationary Source in Nonstationary Medium ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.2.1.8  Assessment of Chemical Broadcast Messaging ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     7.2.2  Acoustic Broadcast Communication ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.2.2.1  Acoustic Radiators ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.2.2.2  Free-Tissue Acoustic Channel Capacity ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     7.2.3  Electromagnetic Broadcast Communication ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     7.2.4  Nanomechanical Communication ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     7.2.5  Cable Communication ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.2.5.1  Electrical Cables ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.2.5.2  Infrared and Optical Cables ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.2.5.3  Acoustic Cables and Transmission Lines ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.2.5.4  Mechanical Cables ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.2.5.5  Chemomessenger Cables ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     7.2.6  Communicytes ..... Local Copy (HTML)

7.3  Communication Networks ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     7.3.1  Fiber Networks ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     7.3.2  Mobile Networks ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     7.3.3  Networks Assessment ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     7.3.4  Dedicated Communication Organs ..... Local Copy (HTML)

7.4  Communications Tasks ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     7.4.1  Inmessaging from External Sources ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     7.4.2  Inmessaging from Patient or User ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.4.2.1  Mechanical Inmessaging ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.4.2.2  Kinesthetic Inmessaging ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.4.2.3  Acoustic Inmessaging ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.4.2.4  Chemical Inmessaging ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.4.2.5  Electromagnetic and Thermal Inmessaging ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.4.2.6  Neural Inmessaging ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.4.2.7  Macroscale Inmessaging Transducers ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     7.4.3  Intradevice Messaging ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     7.4.4  Interdevice Messaging ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     7.4.5  Biocellular Messaging ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.4.5.1  Natural Cellular Communication ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.4.5.2  Inmessaging from Cells ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.4.5.3  Outmessaging to Cells ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.4.5.4  Cell Message Modification ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.4.5.5  Inmessaging from Neurons ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.4.5.6  Outmessaging to Neurons ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     7.4.6  Outmessaging to Patient or User ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.4.6.1  Somesthetic Outmessaging ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.4.6.2  Kinesthetic Outmessaging ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.4.6.3  Auditory Outmessaging ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.4.6.4  Gustatory and Olfactory Outmessaging ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.4.6.5  Ocular Outmessaging ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.4.6.6  Artificial Symptoms ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          7.4.6.7  Macroscale Outmessaging Transducers ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     7.4.7  Outmessaging to External Receivers ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     7.4.8  Transvenue Outmessaging ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 8.  Navigation

8.1  Navigating the Human Body ..... Local Copy (HTML)

8.2  Human Somatography ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     8.2.1  Navigational Vasculography ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          8.2.1.1  Arteriovenous Macrocirculation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          8.2.1.2  Arteriovenous Microcirculation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          8.2.1.3  Lymphatic System ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     8.2.2  Navigational Bronchography ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     8.2.3  Navigational Alimentography ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     8.2.4  Navigational Osteography ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     8.2.5  Organography and Histonavigation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

8.3  Positional Navigation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     8.3.1  Dead Reckoning ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     8.3.2  Cartotaxis ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     8.3.3  Microtransponder Networks ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     8.3.4  Vascular Bifurcation Detection ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     8.3.5  Macrotransponder Networks ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     8.3.6  Dedicated Navigational Organs ..... Local Copy (HTML)

8.4  Functional Navigation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     8.4.1  Thermographic Navigation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          8.4.1.1  Thermography of the Human Body ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          8.4.1.2  Thermal Demarcation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          8.4.1.3  Low-Resolution Thermographics ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          8.4.1.4  High-Resolution Thermographics ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     8.4.2  Barographic Navigation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     8.4.3  Chemographic Navigation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     8.4.4  Microbiotagraphics ..... Local Copy (HTML)

8.5  Cytonavigation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     8.5.1  Cytometrics ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     8.5.2  Cytoidentification ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          8.5.2.1  Identification of Self ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          8.5.2.2  Identification of Cell Type ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     8.5.3  Cytography ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          8.5.3.1  Overall Cell Structure ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          8.5.3.2  Cell Membrane ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          8.5.3.3  Cytosol ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          8.5.3.4  Ribosomes ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          8.5.3.5  Endoplasmic Reticulum ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          8.5.3.6  Golgi Complex ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          8.5.3.7  Vesicles, Granules, and Vaults ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          8.5.3.8  Lysosomes and Proteasomes ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          8.5.3.9  Peroxisomes ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          8.5.3.10  Mitochondria ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          8.5.3.11  Cytoskeleton ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          8.5.3.12  Cytonavigational Issues ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     8.5.4  Nucleography ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          8.5.4.1  Nuclear Envelope ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          8.5.4.2  Nuclear Pore Complexes ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          8.5.4.3  Nuclear Cortex ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          8.5.4.4  Nucleoplasm and Chromatin ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          8.5.4.5  Nucleolus ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          8.5.4.6  Nuclear Matrix and Transcript Domains ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          8.5.4.7  Nucleonavigational Issues ..... Local Copy (HTML)

8.6  Ex Vivo Navigation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     8.6.1  Epidermal Navigation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     8.6.2  Exodermal Navigation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 9.  Manipulation and Locomotion

9.1  Nanorobot Dexterity and Mobility ..... Local Copy (HTML)

9.2  Adhesion and Fluid Transport ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     9.2.1  Van der Waals Adhesion Forces ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     9.2.2  Electrostatic Adhesion Forces ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     9.2.3  Immersive Adhesion Forces ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     9.2.4  Capillarity and Nanoscale Fluid Flow ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     9.2.5  Pipe Flow ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     9.2.6  Effervescence and Crystallescence ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     9.2.7  Fluid Pumping and Plumbing ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.2.7.1  Pressure Release Pumps ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.2.7.2  Positive Displacement Pumps ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.2.7.3  Turbomolecular Gas Pumps ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.2.7.4  Nonmechanical Pumps ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.2.7.5  Fluid Mixing ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.2.7.6  Nanoplumbing and Fluidic Circuits ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.2.7.7  Containerized Flow ..... Local Copy (HTML)

9.3  Nanomanipulators ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     9.3.1  Nanoscale Manipulators ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.3.1.1  Biological Cilia ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.3.1.2  Nanocilium Manipulators ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.3.1.3  Pneumatic Manipulators ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.3.1.4  Telescoping Manipulators ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.3.1.5  Stewart Platform Manipulators ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.3.1.6  Metamorphic Manipulators ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     9.3.2  Nanoscale End-Effectors and Tool Tips ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     9.3.3  Sensors and Manipulator Control ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     9.3.4  Manipulator Arrays ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     9.3.5  Materials Disassembly for Disposal ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.3.5.1  Morcellation and Mincing ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.3.5.2  Disposability Engineering ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.3.5.3  Diamondoid Decomposition ..... Local Copy (HTML)

               9.3.5.3.1  Grinding ..... Local Copy (HTML)

               9.3.5.3.2  Cleavage ..... Local Copy (HTML)

               9.3.5.3.3  Sonication ..... Local Copy (HTML)

               9.3.5.3.4  Thermal Decomposition ..... Local Copy (HTML)

               9.3.5.3.5  Molecular Mechanodecomposition ..... Local Copy (HTML)

               9.3.5.3.6  Chemical and Microbial Decomposition ..... Local Copy (HTML)

9.4  In Vivo Locomotion ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     9.4.1  Rheology of Nanorobot-Rich Biofluids ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.1.1  Biofluid Viscosity ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.1.2  Viscosity of Whole Blood ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.1.3  Radial Distribution of Blood Elements ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.1.4  Viscosity of Nanorobot-Rich Blood ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.1.5  Bloodstream Velocity Profiles ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.1.6  Hematocrit Reduction in Narrow Vessels ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     9.4.2  Sanguinatation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.2.1  Reynolds Number ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.2.2  Rotations and Collisions in sanguo ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.2.3  Disturbed Flows, Hydrodynamic Interactions, and Entropic Packing ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.2.4  Force and Power Requirements ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.2.5  Nanomechanisms for Natation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

               9.4.2.5.1  Surface Deformation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

               9.4.2.5.2  Inclined Plane ..... Local Copy (HTML)

               9.4.2.5.3  Volume Displacement ..... Local Copy (HTML)

               9.4.2.5.4  Viscous Anchoring ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.2.6  Additional Considerations ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     9.4.3  Cytoambulation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.3.1  Ambulatory Contact Event ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.3.2  Cell Plasma Membrane Elasticity ..... Local Copy (HTML)

               9.4.3.2.1  Plasma Membrane Areal Expansion Elasticity ..... Local Copy (HTML)

               9.4.3.2.2  Plasma Membrane Shear Elasticity ..... Local Copy (HTML)

               9.4.3.2.3  Plasma Membrane Bending Elasticity ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.3.3  Anchoring and Dislodgement Forces ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.3.4  Contact Event Cycling ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.3.5  Legged Ambulation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.3.6  Tank-Tread Rolling ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.3.7  Amoeboid Locomotion ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.3.8  Inchworm Locomotion ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     9.4.4  Histonatation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.4.1  Nanorobot Diapedesis ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.4.2  ECM Brachiation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.4.3  Intercellular Passage ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.4.4  Nanorobot Conjugation and Partition ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     9.4.5  Cytopenetration ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.5.1  Transmembrane Brachiation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.5.2  Metamorphic Screw Drive ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.5.3  Solvation Wave Drive ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.5.4  Vesicle Fusion and Endocytotic Entry ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.5.5  Cytosolic Leakage During Transit ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.5.6  Breach Sealing and Intrusiveness ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.5.7  Nuclear Membrane Penetration ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     9.4.6  In Cyto Locomotion ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     9.4.7  Cytocarriage ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.7.1  Objectives of Cytocarriage ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.7.2  Cytovehicle Selection ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.7.3  Cytocarriage Initiation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.7.4  Steering and Control ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.7.5  Navigation and Sensing ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.4.7.6  Cytovehicular Behavioral Control ..... Local Copy (HTML)

9.5  Ex Vivo Locomotion ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     9.5.1  Dental Walking ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     9.5.2  Epidermal Locomotion ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     9.5.3  Nanoflight ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.5.3.1  Nanoflight and Reynolds Number ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.5.3.2  Nanoflight and Gravity ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.5.3.3  Buoyant Nanoballoons ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.5.3.4  Nanoflyer Force and Power Requirements ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.5.3.5  Hovering Flight ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          9.5.3.6  No-Fly Zones ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

Chapter 10.  Other Capabilities ..... Local Copy (HTML)

10.1  Nanochronometry ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     10.1.1  Human Chronobiology ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     10.1.2  Artificial Nanoscale Oscillators ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          10.1.2.1  Mechanochemical & Photochemical Oscillators ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          10.1.2.2  Mechanical Oscillators ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          10.1.2.3  Acoustic Transmission Line Oscillators ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          10.1.2.4  Quartz Resonators ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          10.1.2.5  Atomic Frequency Standards ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     10.1.3  Nanorobot Synchronization ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     10.1.4  Dedicated Chronometer Organs ..... Local Copy (HTML)

10.2  Nanocomputers ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     10.2.1  Nanomechanical Computers ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     10.2.2  Nanoelectronic Computers ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          10.2.2.1  Molecular Wires ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          10.2.2.2  Electromechanical Molecular Switching Devices ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          10.2.2.3  Field-Controlled Molecular Switching Devices ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          10.2.2.4  Other Molecular Electronic Devices ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          10.2.2.5  Molecular Electrostatic Field Computers ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     10.2.3  Biocomputers ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          10.2.3.1  Biochemical Computers ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          10.2.3.2  Biomechanical Computers ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          10.2.3.3  Organic and Bioelectronic Computers ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     10.2.4  Ultimate Limits to Computation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          10.2.4.1  Reversible Computers ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          10.2.4.2  Quantum Computers ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          10.2.4.3  Bekenstein-Bounded Computation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     10.2.5  Dedicated Computational Organs ..... Local Copy (HTML)

10.3  Pressure Storage and Ballasting ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     10.3.1  Fluid Storage Tank Scaling ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     10.3.2  The Van der Waals Equation ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     10.3.3  Pressure-Altered Physical Properties ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     10.3.4  Vessel Leakage and Flammability ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     10.3.5  Vacuum Pumping and Storage ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     10.3.6  Buoyancy Control and Nanapheresis ..... Local Copy (HTML)

10.4  Cytocide and Virucide ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     10.4.1  Biochemical Cytocide and Virucide ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          10.4.1.1  Apoptosis ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          10.4.1.2  Phagocytic Flagging ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          10.4.1.3  Cell Division Arrest ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          10.4.1.4  Chemical Poisoning ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     10.4.2  Mechanical Cytocide and Virucide ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          10.4.2.1  Transmembrane Siphonation and Ionic Disequilibration ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          10.4.2.2  Mechanical Cytoskeletolysis and Monkeywrenching ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          10.4.2.3  Gross Cellular Disruption ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          10.4.2.4  Mechanical Virucide ..... Local Copy (HTML)

               10.4.2.4.1  Sequester and Transport (ST) ..... Local Copy (HTML)

               10.4.2.4.2  Digest and Discharge (DD) ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          10.4.2.5  Mechanical Bacteriocide ..... Local Copy (HTML)

               10.4.2.5.1  Desiccate, Sequester & Transport (DST) ..... Local Copy (HTML)

               10.4.2.5.2  Neuter and Release (NR) ..... Local Copy (HTML)

               10.4.2.5.3  Liquefy, Digest and Discharge (LDD) ..... Local Copy (HTML)

          10.4.2.6  Cytocarriage Disposal ..... Local Copy (HTML)

10.5  Temperature Effects on Medical Nanorobots ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     10.5.1  Dimensional Stability and Strength ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     10.5.2  Viscosity and Locomotion in Ice ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     10.5.3  Solubility and Solvents ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     10.5.4  Heat Conductivity and Capacity, and Refrigeration ..... Local Copy (HTML)

     10.5.5  Other Temperature-Dependent Properties ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

Afterword by Ralph C. Merkle ..... Local Copy (HTML)

Appendix A.  Useful Data in Medical Nanodevice Design ..... Local Copy (HTML)

Appendix B.  Concentrations of Human Blood Components ..... Local Copy (HTML)

Appendix C.  Catalog of Distinct Cell Types in the Adult Human Body ..... Local Copy (HTML)

Glossary ..... Local Copy (HTML)

REFERENCES ..... Refs1-99 ..... Refs100-199 ..... Refs200-299 ..... Refs300-399 ..... Refs400-499 ..... Refs500-599 ..... Refs600-699 ..... Refs700-799 ..... Refs800-899 ..... Refs900-999 ..... Refs1000-1099 ..... Refs1100-1199 ..... Refs1200-1299 ..... Refs1300-1399 .....Refs1400-1499 ..... Refs1500-1599 ..... Refs1600-1699 ..... Refs1700-1799 ..... Refs1800-1899 ..... Refs1900-1999 ..... Refs2000-2099 ..... Refs2100-2199 ..... Refs2200-2299 ..... Refs2300-2399 ..... Refs2400-2499 ..... Refs2500-2599 ..... Refs2600-2699 ..... Refs2700-2799 ..... Refs2800-2899 ..... Refs2900-2999 ..... Refs3000-3099 ..... Refs3100-3199 ..... Refs3200-3299 ..... Refs3300-3399 ..... Refs3400-3499 ..... Refs3500-3599 ..... Refs3600-3699 ..... Refs3700-3799

Index ..... Local Copy (HTML)

Back Cover ..... Local Copy (HTML)

 

 

 

 

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Nanomedicine, Volume I, last updated on 5 September 2013

since 3 March 2003